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10 Quick Facts About Graffiti

Sure, you’ve seen the bubble letters and bright colors that decorate walls, poles and train cars. You may have even heard it by different names. Street art. Vandalism. Tagging. Columbia even has an area dedicated to the craft called Graffiti Beach in Flat Branch Park.

But when and where did it start? Who started it? Why is it there? And what are the legal issues? This quick list will give you a glimpse into the historical and cultural context of graffiti.

1. Graffiti as it’s known today began in the late 1960s in Philadelphia.

It was primarily used to make political statements and mark street gang territory.

Photo courtesy of Flickr/RJ

2. One of the first known graffiti artists was called Cornbread.

His name is Darryl McCray, but he was known by his tagging name, Cornbread.

3. Many graffiti artists tag their work.

“Tagging” is a way for street artists to sign their name anonymously. They often use random words or symbols and then embellish them with stars or crowns.

Photo courtesy of Sry85/Wikimedia

4. The Style Wars began in the 1970s, which introduced the concept of bombing.

Graffiti artists created bigger and bigger pieces in an attempt to achieve fame. They would often “bomb,” or “hit,” one area, which meant painting many surfaces in an area. For the sake of time, they often threw up tags instead of complex pieces.

5. The Philadelphia Anti-Graffiti Network was founded in 1984 to fight the spread of graffiti.

The agency is backed by the city of Philadelphia and provides resources to businesses who need help eradicating vandalism of their property. They also have a Mural Arts Program which allows youth to express themselves by creating murals throughout the city. Similar agencies have popped up in cities around the U.S.

6. While most laws surrounding graffiti are local, there is a federal law prohibiting railroad vandalism.

The law is a strategy to prevent trespassing on railroad property and vandalism affecting railroad safety.  Their main concern in creating this law was safety.

Photo courtesy of A Syn/Flickr

7. Graffiti is one of the four elements of hip hop.

The other three are DJing, emceeing and break dancing. Some have added on a fifth, which is knowledge.

8. Subway graffiti died out for the most part in the late 1980s due to heightened security.

The last subway train with a significant amount of graffiti on it was taken off the rails in 1989. It didn’t die out completely, however, and some artists took to freight trains.

Photo courtesy of Jim Pickerell/Wikipedia

9. A black book, or piece book, is a graffiti artist’s sketchbook.

It’s often closely guarded from authorities because it could be used as evidence in vandalism cases.

Photo courtesy of Jemandarderes/Wikimedia

10. To keep up with the competition, graffiti artists created rubber stamps, stickers and stencils for more efficient tagging.

Some believed that this defied the true nature of graffiti, but at this point in the 1980s, everyone was focused on achieving fame.

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5 Easy Photoshop Tips for Beginners

In this article I will walk you through some basic Photoshop retouching skills. These 5 easy Photoshop tips for beginners will be a great start to learning to proces your photographs.

1. Learning Keyboard Shortcuts

Learning keyboard shortcuts will help you to speed up your processing workflow. There are few key shortcuts for different tools in the tool bar. A few of the most widely used shortcuts are:

Photoshop keyboard shortcuts

  • V = move tool
  • F – toggles through display screen modes
  • Space bar = temporary hand key
  • B – paintbrush tool
  • D – sets the foreground/background colorss to default
  • X – swaps between background and foreground color
  • E – eraser tool
  • S – stamp or cloning tool
  • W – quick selection tool
  • Ctrl+j – duplicates the selected layer

There are just few of the most regularly used Photoshop shortcuts. When you start using the program more, your knowledge of shortcuts will gradually increase. Once you are aware of the most used shortcuts retouching pace will be faster than ever.

2. Color Enhancing – Saturation versus Vibrance

Photoshop tips vibrance

Color is another domain you can try while enhancing your photographs. Generally when you are beginning in photography, enhancing the color of every image looks good, as if the colors are speaking out of the photographs. It will be lot more helpful if you can understand the difference between how saturation and vibrance works. Go to Image menu and choose Adjustment under the menu

As shown in the image to the right, select the Vibrance option. You will get two options under the menu – Vibrance and Saturation. Vibrance increases the saturation of less saturated colors. This option avoids yellow and orange skin tones. Basically vibrance works best for portraits.

Photoshop tips saturation color adjustments

On the other hand, saturation increases the intensity of all the colors in your image equally. This may not be a good option for portraits or peoples photos. What I can recommend is this: slowly start with vibrance for the color enhancement and use saturation later if you want to pump up the color more.

If you compare the two photos below, you will understand how vibrance is only responsible for increasing the intensity of less saturated colors, where as saturation increases the intensity of all colors equally.

Photoshop vibrance adjustment

Photoshop saturtation adjustment

3. Adding a Vignette

Photoshop vignette

Vignetting is basically a technique to darken the edges of your frame so that the eyes move to the subject more easily. This procedure works best when you have a subject in the center. Our eyes tend to move towards the brighter part of the image and recede on the darker side. This technique will result in dark space around the subject.

There are lots of manual ways you can add vignetting in your photos but I will talk about how to easily add vignetting in your images via Photoshop. Go to Filters Menu at the top and select “Lens Correction”, then choose the Custom Tab on the right. The third section down is for adding a vignette. Slide the Amount to the left to darken, and Midpoint to adjust the size of the circle.
Photoshop tips vibrance Photoshop tips vignetting

4. Adding Sharpness and Details

Photoshop filter lens correction vignette

Adding sharpness is another technique for beginners in Photoshop. This will make your image look more detailed. I would suggest detailing most of your images with appropriate values. But make sure you sharpen, or detail your images with a small value if you are going to upload images on Facebook because it compresses the images and adds some detail to make it took a bit sharper. So when an already sharpened image is uploaded in Facebook, there is a change of it looking too edgy.

 Photoshop high pass filterLike any other technique, there are many ways you can add details in Photoshop. I will show you a very simple technique. Once you understand how this works you can experiment with some of the other techniques.
  • Step 1. Duplicate the selected layer with a keyboard shortcut Ctrl+J (PC) or Command+J oP MAC
  • Step 2. Open the High Pass filter: Filter > Other > High Pass on the top layer
  • Step 3. Apply an appropriate value (just to see the edges in the image) and click Okay
  • Step 4. Change the blending mode of the top layer to Overlay
  • Step 5. Adjust the opacity of that layer to your taste

Photoshop-tips-layer-blend-mode

5. Photoshop Filter Gallery

Photoshop tips filters

Filters are basically automated effects that you apply to your images with a few clicks. Filters can help you to achieve certain special effects or looks. There are various filters in Photoshop, which you can pick individually, each filter results in different effect when applied to different images. You an also apply more than one and stack them. Though I don’t use filters much, it’s good to explore if you are just starting out in Photoshop. Later, when you are more familiar with advanced tools and techniques you can try to create the similar effect from manual options and controls.

To apply a filter select the layer and go to Filter > Filter Gallery. Before you apply any filter in the gallery make sure to change your image to 8 bit. You can do that by going to Image > Mode > 8 bits/channel

Photoshop filter gallery

I hope these 5 basic Photoshop tips will help you to retouch and enhance your photos. If you have others suitable for beginners please share in the comments below.

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Sculpting Materials of Beginner

Sculpting can be a rewarding and therapeutic form of art making. Working with hands directly with medium is a unique experience. Unfortunately, many sculpting materials are expensive or not conducive for use by beginners. In this post, we’ll take a look at some sculpting materials that are easy to find, inexpensive, and most importantly – appropriate for beginners (and young artists).

Before we look at sculpting materials, let’s briefly discuss sculpting processes. There are basically two “umbrellas” sculpting processes fall under. These two “umbrellas” are additive processes and subtractive processes. Additive sculpting processes involve adding materials to “build up” the sculpture, where subtractive processes rely on the removal of the material to “reveal” the sculpture. Additive techniques include modeling and assemblage. Materials typically used for additive processes include clay, wax, and plasticine. An example of a subtractive processes is carving. Typical materials used for subtractive processes include wood, plaster, and marble.

Obviously, some of these materials may not practical for beginners. So, let’s take a look at a few that are.

Materials for Additive Sculpture Processes

Model Magic – Model Magic is made by Crayola. It is a non-toxic and inexpensive sculpting material that air dries. It can be painted with water-based paints when it is dry. It’s fairly sticky stuff and will adhere to an armature pretty well. Art snobs may turn their nose up at Model Magic, but it’s an interesting sculpting medium that’s perfect for beginners that want to have an experience with modeling without the mess or the expense.

Plasticine Clay – Plasticine clay is colored, oil-based clay. It’s what most of use think of when we think of modeling clay. Because it is oil-based, it will not dry out. Most plasticine clay is labeled as non-toxic, but I wouldn’t recommend using it with smaller children. It’s also pricey. If you are considering a larger sculpture, then plasticine clay may “break the bank”. But for smaller sculptures, maquettes, or just playing around, plasticine may be the way to go.

Polymer Clay – Polymer clay is actually PVC. Liquid is added to make it pliable enough to be formed and shaped. Pigment is added to the clay to give it its color and it comes in a wide variety of them. The more you work the polymer clay, the easier it is to work with. Small or weak hands may have some problems manipulating this modeling material when they first start working with it. Polymer clay can be baked in the oven to fix it into shape. This makes it a popular material for making small pieces of jewelry. Polymer clay, however is the most expensive modeling material on this list. You are pretty much limited to small sculptures with this material.

Air Dry Clay – There are a few companies that make air dry “clay”. Each of these products vary greatly in quality and price. For children, your best bet may be with Crayola Air Dry Clay. It’s very inexpensive, non-toxic, and can be painted when its dry. For more developed artists, AMACO Marblex Self-Hardening clay may be the way to go. It’s relatively inexpensive and can result in professional results.

Home Made Play Dough – My mom made me homemade play dough all the time growing up and I loved it. It was warm and mushy and she would make it any color that I wanted. It’s incredibly easy to make, non-toxic and fun. But this medium is pretty much for kids and open-minded adults. Don’t expect professional results from homemade play dough.

Materials for Subtractive Sculpture

Soap Sculpture – Soap is a great material for carving. It’s safe and well-very clean. Dull blades can be used and still create good details. Soap is also inexpensive and perfect for a class project. The best part is that the cheaper soaps are better suited for sculpture!

Plaster of Paris – Plaster of Paris is easy to find at most art stores. It’s inexpensive and easy to mix. Pour it into empty paper milk cartons. Peel away the paper after it sets, and you’re ready to create a sculpture. Use a rasp and sand paper to remove the plaster to reveal your sculpture.

Balsa Wood – Balsa wood is soft and pliable. It’s extremely easy to carve. It makes a suitable wood for beginning carvers. Balsa wood can be picked up at most art stores, but larger pieces might have to be special ordered. Balsa wood is not very expensive, but it’s not cheap either. Carving with Balsa wood might not be suitable for younger artists, since sharp knives are recommended for carving.

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Calligraphy in Islamic Art

Tile with Arabic inscription, Iran, about 1215. Museum no. 1481-1876

Tile with Arabic inscription, Iran, about 1215. Museum no. 1481-1876

The development of sophisticated calligraphy as an art form is not unique to Islamic culture. Other examples include Chinese and Japanese calligraphy and illuminated bibles from north-west Europe including the famous Book of Kells. In the Islamic world, however, calligraphy has been used to a much greater extent and in astonishingly varied and imaginative ways, which have taken the written word far beyond pen and paper into all art forms and materials. For these reasons, calligraphy may be counted as a uniquely original feature of Islamic art. The genius of Islamic calligraphy lies not only in the endless creativity and versatility, but also in the balance struck by calligraphers between transmitting a text and expressing its meaning through a formal aesthetic code.

The Arabic language, and subsequently the art of calligraphy, is held in great esteem by Muslims because Arabic was the language in which the Qu’ran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. The Arabic text of the Qu’ran is sacred to Muslims, and its high status gave rise to an associated respect for books in general. However, it is important to remember that while the Qu’ran’s holy status provides an explanation for calligraphy’s importance, by no means all Arabic calligraphy is religious in content. In general, calligraphic inscriptions on works of art comprise one or more of the following types of text:

  • Qu’ranic quotations
  • other religious texts
  • poems
  • praise for rulers
  • aphorisms

These types of text can be seen across all art forms.

Since Muhammad’s time, Arabic has become a great world language, used over a huge area as a language of religion, government, commerce, literature and science. In time, the letters of the Arabic script, with the addition of a few new letter forms, were also used to write in Persian, Turkish and other languages, as well as Arabic.

Leaf from the Qur'an, Middle East, 800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951Leaf from the Qu’ran, Middle East,

800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951

How the scripts developed

Although many dialects of Arabic were spoken in pre-Islamic times, and some are known to have been written down, most literature was transmitted orally. The Qu’ran, too, was preserved by oral transmission until after the Prophet’s death when it was recorded in written form. This required that the Arabic script be standardised. We know that the standard form of script was in use by the end of the 7th century. It was employed, for example, on the first surviving monument of Islamic architecture, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, built in AD 691. The new writing also appeared on the coins minted for Muhammad’s successors, the caliphs. Both the Dome of the Rock and early Islamic coinage use Qu’ranic quotations to declare Islam as the new monotheistic faith.

Dish with inscription in floriated Kufic script, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000. Museum no. C.66-1967

Dish with inscription in floriated Kufic
script, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000.
Museum no. C.66-1967

The first formal calligraphic style is called the Kufic style after the city of Kufah in Iraq. It was used in many early Qur’an manuscripts and for inscriptions, including those at the Dome of the Rock. Confusingly, the same name is also commonly used for a second major group of script styles, which came to prominence in the 10th century. These new, more angular styles came to include many fanciful variants such as foliated Kufic (decorated with curling leaf shapes) and floriated Kufic (decorated with flower forms). This second group of Kufic styles was used in contexts as varied as Qu’ran manuscripts, coinage, architectural inscriptions and the decoration of ceramics.

While this second type of Kufic was being developed in the Middle East, probably in Baghdad, a new style was developed far to the west, in Muslim-ruled Spain or Morocco. The Arabic name for this western region is al-Maghrib, and so the new style was called Maghribi. Some calligraphers in the region still use this Maghribi style today. In the Eastern Islamic world, however, the Kufic styles had more or less died out by the 13th century, replaced by the range of more rounded styles in use now.

Bowl, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000. Museum no. C.47-1964

Bowl, Iran or Uzbekistan, 900-1000.
Museum no. C.47-1964

It may be that the new, more fluid styles developed in the East because paper had replaced parchment and papyrus as the main medium for important manuscripts and documents. The surface of the paper could be sized (coated with starch) and rubbed with a stone until extremely smooth and glossy. The pen moved over this surface with great ease. (Parchment continued to be used until a much later date in the Maghrib).

Another factor was the type of pen used, which was made from a reed. The nib was made by cutting the end of the reed with a knife. Different effects could be achieved by cutting the nib in different ways. The later, rounded scripts were written with a nib cut at an oblique angle, which allowed the calligrapher to create both thick and thin lines, adding elegance and variety to the script. The width of the pen was also important: wider nibs were needed for larger script so that the width of the line stayed in proportion to the overall size of the writing.

CalligSystem.362.jpg

Alif image

A system of proportion based on the width of the nib also determined the shapes of the individual letters, and the relative sizes of the letters in a line of writing. The letter Alif, for example, consists essentially of a single vertical stroke. In one style, it is only three times as high as it is wide, while in another it is seven times as high. The letter Alif is therefore far more prominent in the second style and contributes to its overall appearance. Variations were allowed to take account of the different contexts a letter might occur in, and there was also flexibility in the length of the ligatures, or joins between the letters. This was important because the Arabic script is always cursive, or joined-up, and never has separate letters, as in printed English.

Another basic ingredient in the formation of a style was the nature of the base line. In many scripts, the imaginary line on which the letters were written was strictly horizontal. In others, each new group of letters began above the base line and then sloped downwards to the left to meet it. Arabic script, unlike English, reads right to left. These ‘hanging’ scripts were originally devised as a security feature in official documents, because the ‘hanging’ groups could be placed very close together to prevent unauthorised additions. Later, though, this feature was used in other contexts because it was considered elegant.

Materials and techniques

Designs with calligraphy were created out of many different materials. Yet calligraphy often imitates the technical effects of pen on paper, even when it appears on other media. It is possible to see, for example, the graceful range from thick to thin line and the square shape of superscript dots written with a square-cut pen nib. Artists often made their designs by copying from prepared templates written out (on to paper) by a calligrapher.

Ink on parchment

Before the invention of paper, vellum or parchment was the highest quality writing material available. It is made from prepared animal hide. A reed pen, with the tip cut at an angle and filled with ink, would have been used. Writing on vellum can be erased or altered.

Ink on paper

The calligraphy would have been created using a reed pen and ink directly onto starched and polished paper, which provided an excellent smooth surface for writing.

Ceramics

The calligraphy tile pictured below was deeply carved with the inscriptions (and plant designs) and covered with coloured glazes, before the final firing. This technique was used in Central Asia only for a brief period, from around 1350 to the early 1600s.

Wood

The letters were carved and then painted. In the image below the paint has now mostly worn off though you can still see some traces remaining.

Leaf from the Qur'an, Middle East, 800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951

Leaf from the Qur’an, Middle East, 800-900. Museum no. Circ.161-1951

Detail of page from the Zafar Nama epic, Iran, 1500-1600. Museum no. E.2138-1929

Detail of page from the Zafar Nama epic, Iran, 1500-1600. Museum no. E.2138-1929

Tile Fragment, Bukhara, about 1359. Museum no. 971-1901

Tile fragment, Bukhara, about 1359. Museum no. 971-1901

Detail from wooden panel with Arabic inscription, Spain or Morocco, 1150-1250. Museum no. 378A-1907

Detail from wooden panel with Arabic inscription, Spain or Morocco, 1150-1250. Museum no. 378A-1907

Stained glass

This window pictured below is made from small pieces of glass of different colours, which have been arranged in patterns within a plaster framework.

Textiles

The weaver of the silk from Muslim Spain has accurately reproduced the flowing lines of a written inscription in Arabic, a task requiring enormous care in the design. The phrase ‘Glory to our lord the sultan’ has been repeated within the widest band in the design, creating the illusion of a long frieze of calligraphy.

Enamelled glass

The lamp was made by blowing hot glass into shape and then leaving it to cool. The enamel colours and gilding were then painted on – the enamel was a solution of colours and ground glass that melted and fused on to the lamp when it was reheated in a kiln. The blown glass would have been decorated with enamel and gilt, possibly using fine brushes.

Metalwork

Metalworkers chiselled out tiny areas of the brass surface and filled them with pieces of silver and gold. They added details by chasing the surfaces of the softer inlaid metals with a hammer and tools and adding a black filler to create contrast. The casket pictured below has a strip of calligraphy around the sides and on the lid.

Window with the Shahadah, the Muslim profession of faith, carved stucco and coloured glass, Egypt, 1800-80. Museum no. 1202-1883

Window with the Shahadah, the Muslim profession of faith, carved stucco and coloured glass, Egypt, 1800-80. Museum no. 1202-1883

Silk with Arabic inscription, silk and metal-wrapped thread in lampas weave, Spain, 1300-1400. Museum no. 830-1894
Mosque lamp, gilt and enamelled glass, Egypt or Syria, 1340. Museum no. 1056-1869

Silk with Arabic inscription, silk and metal-wrapped thread in lampas weave, Spain, 1300-1400. Museum no. 830-1894

Mosque lamp, gilt and enamelled glass, Egypt or Syria, 1340. Museum no. 1056-1869

Casket, brass, with inlaid gold and silver, Iran, 1300-1350. Museum no. 459-1873

Casket, brass with inlaid gold and silver, Iran, 1300-1350. Museum no. 459-1873

Decorating calligraphy

As well as being written with great elegance, there were many ways in which calligraphy could be enhanced by adding decoration. The words themselves could be written in gold, or in colours other than black. Letters and words could also be outlined or could lie against a background pattern. In addition, calligraphers combined different sizes, colours and styles of text for different phrases or sections of text (but always sticking to the rules of proportionality within each section). These Qu’ran folios show how calligraphers could make functional details of formatting and punctuation into beautifully designed elements.

Notice that the decorated frames and background patterns do not interfere with the clarity of the script, or distract from the content of the text. This is very important because the Qu’ran is considered to be the word of God.

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The Effects of Theatre Education

  • Students involved in drama performance coursework or experience outscored non-arts students on the 2005 SAT by an average of 65 points in the verbal component and 34 points in the math component(1)?
  • Drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills?
  • Drama helps to improve school attendance and reduce high school dropout rates(2)?
  • A 2005 Harris Poll revealed that 93% of the public believes that arts, including theatre, are vital to a well-rounded education (3)?
  • Drama can improve skills and academic performance in children and youth with learning disabilities?

DRAMA IMPROVES ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Numerous studies have demonstrated a correlation between drama involvement and academic achievement. In addition to having higher standardized test scores than their peers who do not experience the arts, student who participate in drama often experience improved reading comprehension, maintain better attendance records, and stay generally more engaged in school than their non-arts counterparts. Schools with arts-integrated programs, even in low-income areas, report high academic achievement.

DRAMA STUDENTS OUTPERFORM NON-ARTS PEERS ON SAT TESTS
The College Entrance Examination Board reported student scores from 2001, 2002, 2004, and 2005 using data from the Student Description Questionnaire indicating student involvement in various activities, including the arts. As compared to their peers with no arts coursework or involvement:

  • Students involved in drama performance scored an average of 65.5 points higher on the verbal component and 35.5 points higher in the math component of the SAT
  • Students who took courses in drama study or appreciation scored, on average, 55 points higher on verbal and 26 points higher on math than their non-arts classmates.
  • In 2005, students involved in drama performance outscored the national average SAT score by 35 points on the verbal portion and 24 points on the math section.

ATTENDANCE
Research indicates that involvement in the arts increases student engagement and encourages consistent attendance, and that drop-out rates correlate with student levels of involvement in the arts.

  • – Students considered to be at high risk for dropping out of high school cite drama and other arts classes as their motivations for staying in school.
  • – Students who participate in the arts are 3 times more likely to win an award for school attendance than those who do not.

READING COMPREHENSION
From learning to read to the in-depth study of Shakespearean literature, drama can play a significant role in the continual development of students’ reading comprehension skills. Studies indicate that not only do the performance of a story and a number of other drama activities in the classroom contribute to a student’s understanding of the work performed, but these experiences also help them to develop a better understanding of other works and of language and expression in general.  The results below were gleaned from studies where educators and students alike noticed a difference when drama played a part in their classrooms,

  • A series of studies on the arts and education revealed a consistent causal link between performing texts in the classroom and the improvement of a variety of verbal skills, including especially significant increases in story recall and understanding of written material.
  • Performance of Shakespeare texts helps to improve students’ understanding of other complex texts including science and math material.
  • Drama can improve reading skills and comprehension better than other activities, including discussion.
BUILDING SELF-ESTEEM THROUGH DRAMA
In addition to building social and communication skills overall, involvement in drama courses and performance has been shown to improve students’ self-esteem as well as their confidence in their academic abilities.

  • High school students who are highly involved in drama demonstrate an elevated self-concept over those who are not involved .
  • Playwriting original works and dramatic presentation of existing works can help to build the self-esteem and communication skills of high school students.
  • The act of performing can help students and youth recognize their potential for success and improve their confidence .

BRIDGING THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP
Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, there has been a national focus on closing the “achievement gap” between students of varying abilities, socioeconomic status, and geographies among other factors that may directly or indirectly affect a student’s academic success.  The arts, including drama, address this issue by catering to different styles of learning, and engaging students who might not otherwise take significant interest in academics.  Additionally, research indicates that drama courses and performance have a particularly positive effect on at-risk youth and students with learning disabilities.

  • A study published in Champions of Change (1999) cites theatre arts, including performance, classes, and participation in a drama club, as a source for “gains in reading proficiency, gains in self-concept and motivation, and higher levels of empathy and tolerance towards others” among youth of low socio-economic status .
  • Drama activities can improve and help to maintain social and language skills of students with learning disabilities and remedial readers .
  • Improvisational drama contributes to improved reading achievement and attitude in disadvantaged students .

How to Become a Theatrical Makeup Artist

A makeup (also known as make-up) artist creates and implements character design involving looks. They often work closely with the costume designer to create an entire look. In the theater, makeup artists must also work with environments as the main goal is to ensure that the character/actor’s facial expressions are visible to the audience. In the past, performers did their own makeup; however, in the 21st century it is more common to find professional makeup artists doing it for them.

This is an example of a small train case.

Learning the skills

  1. Every career demands certain skills and abilities from its professionals. Some key traits for a makeup artist are: natural talent; ability to speak and listen well; good manner with people; eye for detail; a flexible nature; a positive nature; patience; hand-eye coordination; ability to draw straight lines and consistent shapes; creativity; great portfolio; good grooming and personal hygiene habits.
  2. There are two ways to learn how to be a makeup artist. You can go it alone or you can go to a school. Either way you will have to practice.
  3. Some ways to sneak in practice is to have makeup parties, read books on makeup, volunteer for makeup-related jobs, find a mentor or be an apprentice or become an intern.
  4. If you chose to go to school to learn the art of makeup, make sure you shop around. A good article on the subject is “Before You Choose a Makeup School” by Mary Erickson. She cautions that your first impression of a school is probably not necessarily indicative of the reality of it.
  5. Here are a few things to keep in mind while looking to schools:

    -Are the teachers working professionals?
    -Is the curriculum up-to-date?
    -Is the curriculum advanced (or beginning) enough for your level?
    -Is the class/program specialized or specific?
    -Does the school offer on-the-job training or co-op programs?
    -Does the school offer job placement help?
    -What is the school’s published placement rate of its graduates?
    -How large or small is the average class?
    -How much time is given to hands-on training?
    -Does the school supply models?
    -As the program in or cover the area(s) you are interested in?
    -Ask to sit in on a few classes. If the school refuses, see it as a red flag that they are more interested in cranking out graduates rather than really helping you.
    -What is the school/class cancellation policy?
    -Ask to speak with past graduates. If they decline, see it as another red flag.

Getting the job

  1. Finding job openings can be tricky if your school does not offer placement help, or you do not already know someone in the field. Use the classified ads in papers, job boards, company websites, online job boards and trade publications.
  2. Once you have the job make yourself handy and go beyond the basics of the job. Don’t settle for the status quo: be visible, be creative, be polite and professional, and be personable.
  3. Always present the highest quality work ethic in all things, in all ways.

Negative Effects of Digital Technology

Digital technology goes back to well before the modern era. It basically involves the use of a special language–a system of signs that combine together to convey information. Technically, a book is a form of digital technology. Today, most people use the term “digital” to refer to computer technology, which uses a binary language of 1s and 0s. The modern computer has changed the world in ways both positive and negative.

Digital technology is changing the world in ways both positive and negative.

Alienation from Nature

  • From a certain point of view, digital technology is merely the next logical step in a long process that has seen mankind lose touch with the natural world. Critics fear that this alienation has been both the cause of unhealthy mental habits and neurosis in individuals, as well as the cause of environmentally destructive habits in society at large.

Loss of Originality

  • The critic Walter Benjamin famously described art in the 20th century as having lost its aura. Works of art were now being mass-produced by machines and originality was less important. Digital technology has taken this process even farther than Benjamin imagined, making the reproduction of digital artwork (such as a music or movie file) unlimited. Critics claim that this cheapens art and makes it harder for a creator to benefit from his or her originality.

Anarchy

  • Digital technology has proven to be a very destabilizing force where it has been introduced. Older hierarchies in business and politics have already been disrupted by computers and the Internet. Digital technology is inherently difficult to police and as the world becomes more digital, it will also become more lawless and out of control. Critics point to the breakdown of copyright law as an example.

Digital Divide

  • As computers and other digital tools become more important, the difference between those who have digital technology and those who don’t becomes more dangerous. Many critics point to a “digital divide” which increases the differences already existing between the rich and the poor. Bringing access to digital technology for the world’s poor is a developing problem in the new modern world.

Computers as Nature

  • From one point of view, computers are as much a creation of the natural world as trees or the rain. This is because human beings are a product of the natural world. It stands to reason that anything human beings create will be as much a part of the natural world as they are. Understanding the digital in this way shows the promise and danger of technology, as nature can be both cruel and kind.

How to Design a 3D Truck

The American truck is an automobile built on the idea of rugged independence. Trucks allow people to haul lumber, tools and farm equipment for jobs that are traditionally in isolated areas and under the open sky. For the example in this article, you will be learning how to design a truck with a a blue paint job. However, once you learn the basics, you can design any type of 3D truck.
Design a 3D Truck

Instructions

  1. Draw a long rectangle for the body of the car. Draw a shorter rectangle to the left of the long one. Attach these two shapes with a straight line.
  2. Add a trapezoid to above and to the right of the front rectangle to create the front window. The top line of this trapezoid should be shorter than the bottom line. Add triangle to the right side of the trapezoid for the front-side window. Erase the top point of the triangle and replace it with a horizontal line.
  3. Draw a square directly to the right of the triangle for the back-side window. Add a horizontal line above these shapes. This line should start above the front window and continue just past the back-side window. Attach a diagonal line to this line so that it connects with the body of the truck.
  4. Draw two circles for the truck’s left-side wheels. Place one near the front left and the other near the back right. The back wheel should be smaller than the front. Add a curved line under the front left side of the truck to show the bottom of the front right wheel. Draw another curved line between the front and back left-side tires. This will act as the back-right wheel.
  5. Add details to the basic frame. Draw a small diagonal rectangle to the left-bottom corner of the front-side window for the side mirror. Add the grill with a rectangle in the upper middle of the front of the truck. Add two small rectangles to the left and right sides for the grill for headlights. Add the doors with vertical lines on the side of the truck. Place the first vertical line at the just below the side mirror. Add another vertical line running between the front and back windows. Add the last vertical line under the bottom-right corner of the back-side window.
  6. Draw four horizontal lines across the grill. Add a curved line above each wheel. Draw the door handles with a small thin rectangle inside a circle. Add one just below the bottom-right corner of the front side window and another under the bottom-right side of the back window. Draw the rims on the car with small circles inside the center of the wheels. Erase all the guidelines. Ink the entire drawing. Let the ink dry and erase the pencil.
  7. Color the entire body of the car baby blue. Color the windows, tires and inside of the grill black. Color the bumper, rims and metal of the grill light gray. Color the side-left headlight orange. Using the dark blue marker, add dark lines to the bottom of the body of the car. Add dark lines around the tires as well. This will help the car have realistic shading. Add dark gray lines to the middle, bottom and right side of the bumper to add depth.

The History of Musical Theatre Dance

Modern dance used in musicals has its roots in the beginnings of theatre itself. The use of dance is often to help tell a story, to heighten emotion or to achieve aesthetic value. Musical theatre dance is as varied as the individuals performing it, but has been appreciated by audiences for centuries.

Dance is used to heighten aesthetics in theatre.

Ancient Roots

  • The ancient Grecian satyr play was a comedic performance enhanced by music, dance and sometimes masks, while in ancient India, the Natya Shastra was an important text that taught performers how the use of words and gestures (bhavas) evoked specific emotions (rasas) in the audience.
    The use of the bhavas is crucial to ancient Indian theatre.
    The use of the bhavas is crucial to ancient Indian theatre.

Medieval and Renaissance Theatre

  • In Medieval Japan, Noh was a leading artistic performance style blending the use of readings, music, costumes and dance to portray simple beauty. One important element was the jo-ha-kyu dance, which was a courtly dance incorporated into the rest of the play.

    Medieval European theatre was often limited to Passion Plays about Jesus Christ or morality plays, but the Renaissance era saw a reemergence of stylized performances of masques, which were spectacle events combining music, dance and speeches.

    Graceful beauty of an Asian performer.
    Graceful beauty of an Asian performer.

Ballad Opera in the Pre-America Colonies

  • Ballad operas were a form of British performance displaying political commentary through the use of music and dance. The first musical theatre performance that was held in the American Colonies was the ballad opera “Flora” in 1735.

Early America

  • Minstrel shows featured individuals “blacking” their faces and doing parodies of African Americans. While these pieces are controversial, they are also considered a foundation for modern American musical dance. Actors would perform various forms of hardshoe dancing, creating dance steps still seen in musicals today.

    Another key performance was “The Black Crook,” coming about as the result of Broadway theatre manager Thomas Wheatly employing a Parisian ballet troupe whose intended performance space caught fire. He added the dancers to an already-existing melodrama and the result greatly pleased audiences.

Twentieth Century American Musical Dance

  • The Ziegfeld Follies, produced from 1907 to 1931, were tributes to the American girl, and the dance directors of the Follies required a good deal of discipline from their actors/dancers. These directors included Julian Mitchell, Ned Wayburn and Albertina Rasch. The Follies can be credited with redefining theatrical dance with the beginnings of ordering dancers by height, requiring precise movements and using dance notations.

    “Show Boat” (1927) is considered to be the first successful integration of plot line, characterization, music, spectacle and dance. In 1936, choreographer George Balanchine used extended ballet pieces to help develop the plot line in “On Your Toes.” This tradition of musical theatre dance continued through shows such as “Oklahoma!” and “Guys and Dolls.”

Musical Dance Continues

  • Musicals intended to display dance sequences were created in the later 1900s in shows like “Cabaret,” “A Chorus Line” and “Cats.” Some of the more well-known choreographers of the later 20th century include Bob Fosse, who encouraged sensuality in movement; Jerome Robbins, who believed that dance could tell a story; and Gary Chapman, whose choreography extended beyond dance into regular stage movements.